Characteristics and Cognitive Process of Teachers’ Test Scoring Work in Japanese Elementary and Secondary Education
Teachers in elementary and secondary education in Japan are working long hours and this is a big issue. One of the reasons for the long hours is test scoring. In this study, a survey on different school types (elementary, junior high, and senior high schools) in Japan was conducted to determine the characteristics of test scoring, the cognitive processes involved, and the burden of the test scoring processes (correct/incorrect judgment, score calculation, and score recording). The results showed that all types of school teachers in Japan felt burdened due to test scoring task processes. Additionally, teachers in all school types try to ascertain the degree of students’ understanding through the test scoring task processes. A positive correlation was found between the teachers’ ascertaining the degree of students’ understanding and reflecting on their own teaching. This study revealed that the cognitive processes of scoring (teachers’ ascertainment of students’ degree understanding, reflection on their own teaching, and sense of burden) are slightly different depending on the school type. However, teachers in all school types regarded test scoring as an educational activity and not merely a simple task. This should be borne in mind, whether the test scoring is done manually or by a computer system.
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